On the contrary, managers who choose the Theory Y approach have a hands-off style of management. More Related Articles Related AdviceSee All Managing Advice What is the best project management software? What are the nine motivations of work---------------------------------------07 3. Under the right conditions workers actively seek responsibility, take initiative and make creative decisions. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. In 1895, it was here that his grandfather, Thomas McGregor started his business and given its name as, McGregor Institute.
Taken too literally, Theories X and Y seem to represent unrealistic extremes. In general, Theory X style managers believe their employees are less intelligent, lazier, and work solely for a sustainable income. By having more responsibilities workers feel more involved and are more productive, compared to a normally structured business, with many managers. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. He was very interested in scientific management and modern management, in particular the leadership styles and the influence and effects. Unlike Theories X and Y, Theory Z recognizes a transcendent dimension to work and worker motivation.
Three years into the experiment, however, profits declined, layoffs were implemented, and the organizational changes were abandoned. Employee always wants social class. One reasonable conclusion is that the workers were happy to receive attention from the researchers who expressed an interest in them. The soft approach is characterized by leniency and less strict rules in hopes for creating high and cooperative employees. On the other hand, Theory Y managers assume the following: 1 Employees enjoy working. Under Theory X, the four assumptions held by managers are: 1.
McGregor recognized that X-Type workers are in fact usually the minority, and yet in mass organizations, such as large scale production environment, X Theory management may be required and can be unavoidable. Theory x and theory y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. This ensures work stays efficient, productive, and in-line with company standards. Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives: Content and Process theories. The human side of enterprise.
The need for recognition, security and sense of belonging is more important in determining workers' morale and productivity than the physical conditions under which he works. Employees additionally tend to take full responsibility for their work and do not need close supervision to create a quality product. Some of these challenges included the need to increase the workforce effectiveness. While there is a more personal and individualistic feel, this leaves room for error in terms of consistency and uniformity. According to the text book, motivation refers to a psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction.
It does this by discussing in turn their work, explicitly and implicitly drawing comparisons between them. However, most managers assume that motivation can be achieved solely through the implementation of monetary rewards alone — which is definitely an incorrect assumption. McGregor believes there are two basic kinds of managers. McGregor developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X and Theory Y in 1960. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 78, 25—62. McGregor asserted that it was the assumptions of managers that determined their effectiveness, rather than the characteristics of the managers themselves. Further study and empirical research resulted in one of his best-seller book: The Human Side of Enterprise 1960.
The middle step is social class. His work is based upon Maslow's , in that he grouped the hierarchy into lower-order needs Theory X and higher-order needs Theory Y. Elton Mayo discovered… 2126 Words 9 Pages Compare and contrast the management theories of Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, Elton Mayo and Douglas McGregor. Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. The Douglas McGregor biography describes one of the most influential management theorists as a man whose revolutionary insights into the nature of leadership and management changed the relationship between managers and employees, paving the way for best practices implemented by some of today's most successful companies.
McGregor, D 1960, The Human Side of Enterprise, McGraw-Hill,Inc, N. In comparison to Theory X, Theory Y incorporates a pseudo-democratic environment to the workforce. Then he will have some Esteem needs which include recognition, independent, status etc. Like many of the gurus we have written about, he was not necessarily the first to come across the idea associated with him. In the process, he stumbled upon a principle The workplace is a social system.
However, he failed an examination which ended his chances of having a medical career. Management has not yet considered in any depth what is involved in managing an organization heavily populated with people whose prime contribution consists of creative intellectual effort. The hard approach depends on close supervision, intimidation, and immediate punishment. McGregor's ideas significantly relate to modern understanding of the Psychological Contract, which provides many ways to appreciate the unhelpful nature of X-Theory leadership, and the useful constructive beneficial nature of Y-Theory leadership. Articles on Motivation Motivation and How to Get Motivated How many times have you started enthusiastically a weight loss program, began a bodybuilding or aerobics training program, or started learning a foreign language, only to stop after a short while?. There are down to top approach in this theory. And this is really the essence of managing upwards X theory managers - focus and get agreement on the results and deadlines - if you consistently deliver, you'll increasingly be given more leeway on how you go about the tasks, which amounts to more freedom.