Gandhi protested against the declaration of Untouchables as a minority and undertook a fast unto death. Indian leaders opposed the commission as there were no Indians in it. Noncooperation movement, unsuccessful attempt in 1920—22, organized by , to induce the British government of to grant self-government, or swaraj, to India. Adding to this was the serious economic crisis that took hold of the country. The Congress was losing faith in constitutional struggle, especially after the Punjab incidents and the blatantly partisan Hunter Commission Report; iii. Suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement The incident at Chauri Chaura, a village at Gorakhpur district in Uttar Pradesh occurred on 5th February, 1922. Prince of Wales visit boycotted.
The Rowlatt Act, the imposition of martial law in Punjab and the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre exposed the brutal and uncivilised face of the foreign rule. During the movement, the participants were supposed to work for Hindu-Muslim unity and for removal of untouchability, all the time remaining non-violent. In second phase the basic objectives were the collection of Rs. Education was nationalised and modern agriculture and industries developed. To propagate a consciousness of Krishna, as it is revealed in the Bhagavad-gita and theSrimad-Bhagavatam.
Rajgopalachari stressed that the council boycott was a central part of the Gandhian Programme. Gandhi strengthened the movement by supporting on nonviolent terms the Muslim campaign against the dismemberment of the after. At this Conference, it was claimed by Mahatma Gandhi that the Congress represented more than eighty five percent of the Indian population. Companies sought to diminish workerinterest in joining or establishing unions by implementingdeceptive and threatening tactics. The social groups of India,that joined the non-cooperation movement of 1921 were as under : i Middle-class people students,headmasters,teachers,lawyers,etc ii Political parties except the justice party of madras,the parties of non - brahmans iii Merchants and trders iv Peasants of aw … adh led by baba Ramchandra v Tribals of Andhra Pradesh led by Alluri Sitaram Raju vi Plantation workers in assam 1 decrease the tension caused by the cold war.
Turning - rotating the body along the long axis. The economic situation of the country in the post-War years had become alarming with a rise in prices of commodities, decrease in production of Indian industries, increase in burden of taxes and rents etc. These educational institutions were organised under the leadership of Acharya Narendra Dev, C. Gandhi was urged by the Congress to render his much needed leadership to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Triple boycott of a Legislatures-Central and provincial b Government Courts c Government educational institutions. His novel method of Satyagraha had yielded good results. While developing complete distrust in British Government, people revived a sense of self-confidence and self- esteem.
However, although Gandhi was in favour of launching Satyagraha and non-cooperation against the Government on the Khilafat issue, the Congress was not united on this form of political action. The Muslim League and the Hindu Maha Sabha decided to support the Congress. Steps for the emancipation of women. The British attempt at clipping the power of the Sultan of Turkey and fragmentation of his territory after the World War I aroused publics are against British in India. Brief note on:- Jallianwala Bagh massacare 1919 :- On April 13, 1919 — a meeting was called in the afternoon at the Jallianwala Bagh ground at Amrtisar, Punjab. Besides the elite politicians, the comparative new comers in Indian politics found expression of their interests and aspirations in the Gandhian movement. When the War ended, the British took a stern attitude towards Turkey— Turkey was dismembered and the Khalifa removed from power.
On 31st January, Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. Gandhiji decided to withdraw the non-cooperation movement in February 1922. Ahmaedabad Satyagraha 1918 In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi intervened in a dispute between the workers and the mill owners of Ahmedabad. Though the Muslims constituted almost 56 percent of the total population of Punjab, they were given only 86 out of 175 seats in the Punjab Assembly. Boycott of government schools and colleges; ii.
In early 1919 a Khilafat Committee was famed. Principle of weightage was also applied for Europeans in Bengal and Assam, Sikhs in the Punjab and North West Frontier Province, and Hindus in Sindh and North West Frontier Province. Nehru Report 1928 A committee was set-up under the leadership of Motilal Nehru to determine the principles of the Constitution before actually drafting it. Congress volunteer corps emerged as the parallel police. Causes that led to the Non-Cooperation Movement Khilafat Movement 1919 The Caliph or Khalifa Sultan of Turkey was looked upon by the Muslims as their religious head.
The Conference, however, failed as Gandhiji could not agree with British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald on his policy of Communal Representation and the refusal of the British Government for the basic Indian demand for freedom. The introduction of a religious issue like Khilafat into the national movement was another serious weakness. During 1919-22, the British were opposed through two mass movements—the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation. He launched this campaign as a protest against the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre and Rowlatt Act. Refuse to attend government and semi-government functions.