It gives priority to maintaining environmental stability and ecological balances. Felling trees, grazing cattle, removing forest products, quarrying, fishing, and hunting are punishable with a fine or imprisonment. Peninsular Indian Sub-region: This is a true home of Indian wildlife with two distinct zones a peninsular India and its extension into the drainage basin of the Ganges river system, and b desert region of Rajasthan. Regulation of trade in wildlife and national conservation strategy. It provides for the establishment of Central and State Boards for pollution control. The Act provides for maintenance and restoration of quality of all types of surface and ground water.
Who is a forest dweller under this law, and who gets rights? Establishes laboratories for analysis of water, sewage or trade effluent samples. The law recognises three types of rights: Land Rights No one gets rights to any land that they have not been cultivating prior to December 13, 2005 see section 4 3 and that they are not cultivating right now. At present, more than Rs 40,000 crore has been realized and it is increasing at the rate of about Rs 6,000 crore every year. Taking steps to meet requirements of fuel, wood, fodder, minor forest produce, soil and timber of rural and tribal populations; 7. Tree falling in such plantation would however be governed by state acts and rules. As per the law, the chosen land needs to be preferably contiguous to the forest being diverted so that it will become easier for forest officials to manage it.
Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1974 4. At both the taluka and the district levels, any person who believes a claim is false can appeal to the Committees, and if they prove their case the right is denied sections 6 2 and 6 4. Conservation of the forests as a natural heritage finds a place in the new policy, which includes the preservation of its biological diversity and genetic resources. Environment Protection Act, 1986: The Environment Protection Act, November 19, 1986 was enacted as per the spirit of the Stockholm Conference held in June 1972 to take appropriate steps for the protection and improvement of the environs and to prevent hazards to human beings, living creatures and property. Wildlife sanctuaries, National Parks etc.
The Indian Forest Act of 1927 consolidated all the previous laws regarding forests that were passed before the 1920s. The Kashmir stag or hangul which is found in the Dachigam National Park Kashmir has been identified as yet another endangered species. There is little emphasis on protection of plant genetic resources. The Board has powers to restructure the outlets for dumping pollutants. But, since afforested land cannot become a forest overnight, loss of goods and services like timber, bamboo, fuelwood, carbon sequestration, soil conservation, water recharge, and seed dispersal are still experienced. Short title, extent and commencement.
Secondly, although the fund was envisaged to be used for compensatory afforestation, the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill has expanded its scope of use to include general afforestation programme run through the Green India Mission, forest protection, forest management, forest and wildlife related infrastructure development, wildlife conservation, and relocation of people from protected wildlife areas. The project is being implemented in Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Dugong, false killer whale and dolphin are prominent marine mammals. The Scheduled Tribes and other Traditional Forest Dwellers Recognition of Forest Rights Rules, 2008 for implementing the provisions of the Act were notified on 1. Very marginal participation of the poor community in the Act remains one of the major drawbacks which affects proper execution of the Act. The full texts can be found at. The State Board has powers to obtain information, to take samples of effluents from any industry, to sanction or refuse consent of the industry, to make survey of any area and gauge and keep record of the volume and other characteristics of any stream or well.
The forced isolation of elephants in reserves has often led to inbreeding with the consequential negative effects. The amendment of 1988 shattered all the expectations of tribal communities and many voluntary agencies placed all the forest land under the jurisdiction of the forest department. Conservation of natural heritage; 3. If I am cultivating more than 4 hectares without documents or a dispute, I receive title to only 4 hectares. An expert committee, constituted by the Indian Board of Wildlife considers amendments to the Act, as and when necessary. The Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act, 1935 has become completely outdated. It includes goods and services tourism and timber ; regulating services climate change ; and none-material benefits recreation.
This Act confers powers to the Central Government to: 1. Despite certain limitations in the Act, the Water Act has ample provisions for controlling water pollution through legal measures. Penalty for contravention of the provisions of the Act. Some forests were to be controlled by the village community, and these were called village Forests. The elephant habitat has shrunk over the years, and poaching for elephant tusks has endangered the species, especially in southern India. Air pollution is defined as the presence of any liquid or gaseous substances in the atmosphere in such a concentration which tends to be injurious to man, animals, plants or environment.
This is due to the lack of civic sense among people and due to the lack of necessary infra structure for enforcing implementation of the laws efficiently. Under the provisions of this Act, prior approval of the Central government is required for diversion of forest land to non-forest purposes. Project Tiger: Project Tiger was launched in 1973 on the basis of the recommendations of a special task force of the Indian Board of Wildlife to i ensure maintenance of available population of tiger in India, and ii preserve the areas of such biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people. Section 2 of the Act empowers the Central Government to make following rules for the first time for: i Standard of quality of air, water and soil for various areas and for various purposes. To this day it is a criminal offence for you or I to plant a tree in a reserved forest; but it is legal for the Department to fell the entire forest so long as it has Central government permission. In the latest national eviction drive from 2002 onwards, more than 3,00,000 families were driven into destitution and starvation. The Act made it possible to retain a greater control over the frightening level of deforestation in the country and specified penalties for offenders.
The other values of protecting the services that forests provide and its valuable assets such as biodiversity began to overshadow the importance of their revenue earnings from timber. The Central and State Pollution Control Boards are given comprehensive powers to advise, coordinate and provide technical assistance for prevention and control of water pollution. There are wild elephants, gore and other larger animals. Checking soil erosion and denudation in catchment areas of rivers, lakes and reservoirs; 4. The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Cess Act, 1977: 1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands: These islands are home to many species of mammals, reptiles and marine aniinals. The main regulatory bodies are the Pollution Control Boards, which have been conferred the following functions and powers.