Since there is a great variation in individual intelligence, education, personality, skill and character, each individual should be treated according to his particular merits irrespective of any classification. The lives of slaves naturally were at extreme contrast with the lives of their masters or the land owners. But the term gender means much more than sex and more inclusive than sex. At all times, these are things that must be fought against. Second, they cannot agree with the functionalist view that some tasks are more important to a society than others, for one cannot operate than other.
Because of the early influence of family and socialisation the individuals imbibe in them certain values, attitudes and qualities relevant to the social class to which they belong. It is determined by the talents, wealth, money, intelligence, power, education, income, etc. Hence, their work efficiency is also higher. They undergo an amount of struggle which other class people cannot go in their own life because they are used to the facilities given. Gender roles are social constructions: they contain self-perceptions and psychological traits, as well as family, occupational, and political roles assigned to each sex.
They live in slums and take coarse food. This brings us close to the occupational criterion. Those who spend more time on training and acquiring new skills are compensated with high returns. The latter condition made it possible to release a group of people from productive labour. Another way of saying this is that stratification in society refers to economic, political status differences.
He emphasized the difference between class, status, and power, and treated these as separate but related sources of power, each with different effects on social action. Johnson has pointed out several problems in accepting the explanation given by Davis. Status Differentiation: Status differentiation is the process by which social positions are determined and distinguished from one another by way Of associating a distinctive role, a set of rights and responsibilities such as father and mother. It would thus be seen that inequality of status or rank differentiation is the distinguishing feature of social stratification; where there is social stratification, there is social inequality. A point should, however, be made here.
In this regard, social stratification is found in every society, even if it takes on slightly different forms. There is one almost infallible symptom of a shared life style that enables persons otherwise unknown to one another to recognise that they belong essentially to the same class. Additionally, this power can be manifested as the ability to control the distribution of resources and the power to determine the opportunities, rights, and obligations that others have, among others. If the family had no son, the land went to the next closest male relation. Encourages hard work: One of the main functions of class stratification is to induce people to work hard to live up to values. The outcome of their struggle, other things being equal, is the overthrow of the capitalist class and the capitalist relation of production.
A comprehensive study of major world economies revealed that homicide, infant mortality, obesity, teenage pregnancies, emotional depression, teen suicide, and prison population all correlate with higher social inequality. Marx maintained that the experience of similar economic situations develops in the members of a class similar attitudes and beliefs, i. Rewarding: Statuses which are differentiated, ranked and evaluated are allocated differential rewards in terms of good things in life. It is because of these differences between the geological and the social stratification that some sociologists use the word inequality for it but it is more useful to distinguish between inequality and stratification. Conflict which suggests that stratification occurs through conflict between different classes, with the upper classes using superior power to take a larger share of the social resources. It includes chances of survival and of good physical and mental health, opportunities for education, chances of obtaining justice, marital conflict, separation and divorce etc. The consequence of layering process in a society is the creation of structural forms — social classes.
A class system involves inequality, inequality of status. Social stratification, however is only one form of social inequality. The lower class children learn the opposite in most instances. All societies provide some opportunity for social mobility. A member of lower class changes his style of life on having secured a berth in the cabinet or administrative hierarchy. Likewise the prestige of a doctor may be rated by the average prestige of his patients. It is true that factors such as strength, intelligence, age, sex can often serve as the basis on which status are distinguished.
It can only be effected through a sharp class struggle, the highest form of which is revolution. Social standing becomes a comfort zone, a familiar lifestyle, and an identity. Hence they are provided with different opportunities and high prestige. When society does not change and conditions remain much the same from generation to generation, social classes develop. It is as though people are arranged in strata, or layers.
Hence, stratification is social by nature. No one will be placed in a position that will be higher or lower, superior or inferior in relation to other. The system leads to two kind of consequences: i Life chances and ii Life style. Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, who is in line to be king of England, married Catherine Middleton, a so-called commoner, meaning she does not have royal ancestry. Conclusion Social stratification is a benchmark for a societal classification and categorization in the society.