Multiple-purpose river development projects are further cases in point. Such projects can provide electric power, flood control, navigable waterways, irrigation, and recreational facilities. This makes specialization possible and profitable. Internal economies are due to the expansion of individual firm while external economies arise due to the growth of the entire industry. An example is 's delay in moving into digital imaging, which adversely affected the company, ultimately leading to bankruptcy. Internal diseconomies of scale: Refer to diseconomies that raise the cost of production of an organization. Economies of concentration: It refers to localization of localization of large number of firms producing similar goods.
Conversely, a large investment fund must spread its investments among so many securities that its results tend to track those of the market as a whole. There may be a separate head for manufacturing, assembling, packing, marketing, general administration, etc. External diseconomies are costs which are outside the control of a single firm and result of the growth of a specific industry. In part, the question will turn upon how highly developed the price system and private communication systems are in a particular society. Economies of Concentration When a number of firms are located in one place, all the member firms reap some common economies. They are not the result of inventions of any kind, but are due to the use of known methods of production which a small firm does not find worthwhile. Many economies of scale are about spreading fixed costs more thinly.
For example, it might take longer to make decisions, making the company less flexible. For instance, employers may choose to offer higher wages and charge higher prices if they are in an affluent area. A brilliant organizer can devote himself wholly to the work of organizing while the routine jobs can be left to relatively low paid workers. Extensive lists of unwanted byproducts may be drawn up in modern societies— from air and to traffic congestion associated with the automobile. Secondly, publication of statistical, technical and marketing information will be of vital importance to increase output at lower costs. Often external economies lead to internal economies.
There is a limit beyond which a firm becomes unwieldy and hence unmanageable. Such facilities increase the efficiency of the workers who help raise the quality and quantity of the products of the industry. Marketing of finished product can be done cheaply. This is because of lower transport costs and less packaging. Customers are prepared to pay more for exclusive goods made by small businesses. Moreover, a country can design a structure of tariffs and export duties that could prevent an inordinate amount of the benefits due to external economies from accruing to foreigners.
The disintegration may be horizontal or vertical. Economies of Information The economies of information may arise because of the collective efforts of the various firms. Indeed, this kind of solution is often worked out spontaneously by bargaining between the concerned parties or is brought about through legal adjudication. Although railroads and electric utilities are often cited as examples of decreasing cost industries, what if the railroad or power plant is already fully utilized? This helps the organization to enjoy discounts. It is eligible for preferential treatment. The total cost of an advertising campaign can be spread over more units and, again, discounts may be secured. First, communication becomes less effective.
Specialist suppliers may also enter the industry and existing firms may benefit from their proximity. A number of layers of management may be needed and there may be a need for more meetings. Financial economies A bigger firm can get a better rate of interest than small firms 9. For example, data mining software allows the firm to target profitable market niches. It becomes difficult for managers to supervise the sub-ordinates in large organizations.
Generally, banks prefer to grant loans to those organizations that have strong foothold in the market and have good repaying capacity. Large companies can also take advantage of joint research with universities. It can employ highly paid and more experienced research personnel. In varying degrees, discussions of externalities focus on these fundamental aspects of system or organization design and management. Economies of Research A large sized firm can spend more money on its research activities. When output exceeds the optimum level, management problems increase and managerial efficiency declines. This is why supermarkets get lower prices from suppliers than local corner shops.
This becomes critical to a business when the skilled workers it needs are in short supply. In other words, these are the advantages of large scale production of the organization. At one stroke, all the advantages of division of labor can be achieved. Each decision maker only needs to have knowledge about the things he consumes, or produces, or his occupation. Thus by linking the various processes of production and sale, a large firm saves the expenses incurred on intermediaries, thereby reducing unit cost of production. Lack of availability of technical experts to handle the superior machines is still another restraining factor.